International Agreements On Air Pollution Control

1.81 The agreement. The United Nations Agreement on the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 concerning the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, commonly known as the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement (UNFA), constitutes a framework for international cooperation in the conservation and management of such fish stocks. Transport Canada recognizes that it is not able to monitor all ships at all times in waters under Canadian jurisdiction and is therefore unable to calculate the actual quantities of pollutants released intentionally or otherwise. Instead, Transport Canada will use the results of existing aerial inspections and surveillance programs as environmental performance indicators for the marine industry. Transport Canada intends to provide better reporting on programs to implement oil pollution prevention rules. Reports for the 2004 season are expected to be completed by autumn 2005. 1.22 The government`s transfer policy requires the use of a results-based management accountability framework for any federal grants or contribution funding program. In addition, the government generally encourages the use of important directives, programs and initiatives. However, there are no other formal requirements to use this framework or other similar tools. It is up to the competent management services to use the necessary means or tools to define the expected environmental results and performance of their agreements. 1.69 In addition, Wen found little evidence that Transport Canada has made significant progress in its 2001 commitment to the sustainable development strategy to verify the effectiveness of the national aerial surveillance program. For example, it did not conduct a formal risk analysis or models of marine oil pollution from ships to better understand the magnitude of the problem and assess the effectiveness of the program. Unlike other conventions on the environment or climate change, the convention places scientists in the same space as policymakers.

This structure ensures that collaborative working groups including technical and scientific expertise in different fields are linked to the negotiation and political decision-making process. This mutual commitment makes it possible to define the results of scientific information based on model results. One outcome may be to reach agreement on pollution reduction while ensuring that international political negotiations and policy processes contribute to scientific research priorities. As treaties, HEAs are governed by international law and are binding after their entry into force. However, this does not always lead to compliance. National legislation is usually necessary to meet the standards of an environmental agreement. 1.100 Fishers and Oceans Canada, however, noted that setting conservation targets is a complex process, based on international negotiations, and the UNFA did not come into force until 2001. In addition, the Department stated that its management priority was to halt and reverse the significant and worsening trend of overfishing of straddling fish stocks in waters outside Canadian jurisdiction in recent years and, in this regard, it was premature to set management objectives, targets and benchmarks for the reopening of fishing for stocks currently under moratoriums. 1.11 Since 1972, Canada has often played a key role in shaping the international environmental agenda and has endorsed an increasing number of international agreements and similar instruments on various environmental issues. Canada`s environmental commitments to the international community have increased and the number and complexity of our agreements have increased.

Many consider the Convention to be one of the most successful ways to facilitate international cooperation on the environment. . . .